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Archive for the ‘Issue Based Information System’ Category

Improving decision-making in projects

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An irony of organisational life is that the most important decisions on projects (or any other initiatives) have to be made at the start, when ambiguity is at its highest and information availability lowest. I recently gave a talk at the Pune office of BMC Software on improving decision-making in such situations.

The talk was recorded and simulcast to a couple of locations in India. The folks at BMC very kindly sent me a copy of the recording with permission to publish it on Eight to Late. Here it is:


Based on the questions asked and the feedback received, I reckon that a number of people found the talk  useful. I’d welcome your comments/feedback.

Acknowledgements: My thanks go out to Gaurav Pal, Manish Gadgil and Mrinalini Wankhede for giving me the opportunity to speak at BMC, and to Shubhangi Apte for putting me in touch with them. Finally, I’d like to thank the wonderful audience at BMC for their insightful questions and comments.

The Risk – a dialogue mapping vignette

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Foreword

Last week, my friend Paul Culmsee conducted an internal workshop in my organisation on the theme of collaborative problem solving. Dialogue mapping is one of the tools he introduced during the workshop.  This piece, primarily intended as a follow-up for attendees,  is an introduction to dialogue mapping via a vignette that illustrates its practice (see this post for another one). I’m publishing it here as I thought it might be useful for those who wish to understand what the technique is about.

Dialogue mapping uses a notation called Issue Based Information System (IBIS), which I have discussed at length in this post. For completeness, I’ll begin with a short introduction to the notation and then move on to the vignette.

A crash course in IBIS

The IBIS notation consists of the following three elements:

  1. Issues(or questions): these are issues that are being debated. Typically, issues are framed as questions on the lines of “What should we do about X?” where X is the issue that is of interest to a group. For example, in the case of a group of executives, X might be rapidly changing market condition whereas in the case of a group of IT people, X could be an ageing system that is hard to replace.
  2. Ideas(or positions): these are responses to questions. For example, one of the ideas of offered by the IT group above might be to replace the said system with a newer one. Typically the whole set of ideas that respond to an issue in a discussion represents the spectrum of participant perspectives on the issue.
  3. Arguments: these can be Pros (arguments for) or Cons (arguments against) an issue. The complete set of arguments that respond to an idea represents the multiplicity of viewpoints on it.

Compendium is a freeware tool that can be used to create IBIS maps– it can be downloaded here.

In Compendium, IBIS elements are represented as nodes as shown in Figure 1: issues are represented by blue-green question markspositions by yellow light bulbspros by green + signs and cons by red – signs.  Compendium supports a few other node types, but these are not part of the core IBIS notation. Nodes can be linked only in ways specified by the IBIS grammar as I discuss next.

Figure 1: Elements of IBIS

Figure 1: IBIS node types

The IBIS grammar can be summarized in three simple rules:

  1. Issues can be raised anew or can arise from other issues, positions or arguments. In other words, any IBIS element can be questioned.  In Compendium notation:  a question node can connect to any other IBIS node.
  2. Ideas can only respond to questions– i.e. in Compendium “light bulb” nodes can only link to question nodes. The arrow pointing from the idea to the question depicts the “responds to” relationship.
  3. Arguments  can only be associated with ideas– i.e. in Compendium “+” and “–“  nodes can only link to “light bulb” nodes (with arrows pointing to the latter)

The legal links are summarized in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2: Legal links in IBIS

Figure 2: Legal links in IBIS

 

…and that’s pretty much all there is to it.

The interesting (and powerful) aspect of IBIS is that the essence of any debate or discussion can be captured using these three elements. Let me try to convince you of this claim via a vignette from a discussion on risk.

 The Risk – a Dialogue Mapping vignette

“Morning all,” said Rick, “I know you’re all busy people so I’d like to thank you for taking the time to attend this risk identification session for Project X.  The objective is to list the risks that we might encounter on the project and see if we can identify possible mitigation strategies.”

He then asked if there were any questions. The head waggles around the room indicated there were none.

“Good. So here’s what we’ll do,”  he continued. “I’d like you all to work in pairs and spend 10 minutes thinking of all possible risks and then another 5 minutes prioritising.  Work with the person on your left. You can use the flipcharts in the breakout area at the back if you wish to.”

Twenty minutes later, most people were done and back in their seats.

“OK, it looks as though most people are done…Ah, Joe, Mike have you guys finished?” The two were still working on their flip-chart at the back.

“Yeah, be there in a sec,” replied Mike, as he tore off the flip-chart page.

“Alright,” continued Rick, after everyone had settled in. “What I’m going to do now is ask you all to list your top three risks. I’d also like you tell me why they are significant and your mitigation strategies for them.” He paused for a second and asked, “Everyone OK with that?”

Everyone nodded, except Helen who asked, “isn’t it important that we document the discussion?”

“I’m glad you brought that up. I’ll make notes as we go along, and I’ll do it in a way that everyone can see what I’m writing. I’d like you all to correct me if you feel I haven’t understood what you’re saying. It is important that  my notes capture your issues, ideas and arguments accurately.”

Rick turned on the data projector, fired up Compendium and started a new map.  “Our aim today is to identify the most significant risks on the project – this is our root question”  he said, as he created a question node. “OK, so who would like to start?”

 

 

Fig 3: The root question

Figure 3: The root question

 

“Sure,” we’ll start, said Joe easily. “Our top risk is that the schedule is too tight. We’ll hit the deadline only if everything goes well, and everyone knows that they never do.”

“OK,” said Rick, “as he entered Joe and Mike’s risk as an idea connecting to the root question. “You’ve also mentioned a point that supports your contention that this is a significant risk – there is absolutely no buffer.” Rick typed this in as a pro connecting to the risk. He then looked up at Joe and asked,  “have I understood you correctly?”

“Yes,” confirmed Joe.

 

Fig 4: Map in progress

Figure 4: Map in progress

 

“That’s pretty cool,” said Helen from the other end of the table, “I like the notation, it makes reasoning explicit. Oh, and I have another point in support of Joe and Mike’s risk – the deadline was imposed by management before the project was planned.”

Rick began to enter the point…

“Oooh, I’m not sure we should put that down,” interjected Rob from compliance. “I mean, there’s not much we can do about that can we?”

…Rick finished the point as Rob was speaking.

 

Fig 4: Map in progress

Figure 5: Two pros for the idea

 

“I hear you Rob, but I think  it is important we capture everything that is said,” said Helen.

“I disagree,” said Rob. “It will only annoy management.”

“Slow down guys,” said Rick, “I’m going to capture Rob’s objection as “this is a management imposed-constraint rather than risk. Are you OK with that, Rob?”

Rob nodded his assent.

 

Fig 6: A con enters the picture

Fig 6: A con enters the picture

I think it is important we articulate what we really think, even if we can’t do anything about it,” continued Rick. There’s no point going through this exercise if we don’t say what we really think. I want to stress this point, so I’m going to add honesty  and openness  as ground rules for the discussion. Since ground rules apply to the entire discussion, they connect directly to the primary issue being discussed.”

Figure 7: A "criterion" that applies to the analysis of all risks

Figure 7: A “criterion” that applies to the analysis of all risks

 

“OK, so any other points that anyone would like to add to the ones made so far?” Queried Rick as he finished typing.

He looked up. Most of the people seated round the table shook their heads indicating that there weren’t.

“We haven’t spoken about mitigation strategies. Any ideas?” Asked Rick, as he created a question node marked “Mitigation?” connecting to the risk.

 

Figure 8: Mitigating the risk

Figure 8: Mitigating the risk

“Yeah well, we came up with one,” said Mike. “we think the only way to reduce the time pressure is to cut scope.”

“OK,” said Rick, entering the point as an idea connecting to the “Mitigation?” question. “Did you think about how you are going to do this? He entered the question “How?” connecting to Mike’s point.

Figure 9: Mitigating the risk

Figure 9: Mitigating the risk

 

“That’s the problem,” said Joe, “I don’t know how we can convince management to cut scope.”

“Hmmm…I have an idea,” said Helen slowly…

“We’re all ears,” said Rick.

“…Well…you see a large chunk of time has been allocated for building real-time interfaces to assorted systems – HR, ERP etc. I don’t think these need to be real-time – they could be done monthly…and if that’s the case, we could schedule a simple job or even do them manually for the first few months. We can push those interfaces to phase 2 of the project, well into next year.”

There was a silence in the room as everyone pondered this point.

“You know, I think that might actually work, and would give us an extra month…may be even six weeks for the more important upstream stuff,” said Mike. “Great idea, Helen!”

“Can I summarise this point as – identify interfaces that can be delayed to phase 2?” asked Rick, as he began to type it in as a mitigation strategy. “…and if you and Mike are OK with it, I’m going to combine it with the ‘Cut Scope’ idea to save space.”

“Yep, that’s fine,” said Helen. Mike nodded OK.

Rick deleted the “How?” node connecting to the “Cut scope” idea, and edited the latter to capture Helen’s point.

Figure 10: Mitigating the risk

Figure 10: Mitigating the risk

“That’s great in theory, but who is going to talk to the affected departments? They will not be happy.” asserted Rob.  One could always count on compliance to throw in a reality check.

“Good point,”  said Rick as he typed that in as a con, “and I’ll take the responsibility of speaking to the department heads about this,” he continued entering the idea into the map and marking it as an action point for himself. “Is there anything else that Joe, Mike…or anyone else would like to add here,” he added, as he finished.

Figure 11: Completed discussion of first risk (click to see full size

Figure 11: Completed discussion of first risk (click to view larger image)

“Nope,” said Mike, “I’m good with that.”

“Yeah me too,” said Helen.

“I don’t have anything else to say about this point,” said Rob, “ but it would be great if you could give us a tutorial on this technique. I think it could be useful to summarise the rationale behind our compliance regulations. Folks have been complaining that they don’t understand the reasoning behind some of our rules and regulations. ”

“I’d be interested in that too,” said Helen, “I could use it to clarify user requirements.”

“I’d be happy to do a session on the IBIS notation and dialogue mapping next week. I’ll check your availability and send an invite out… but for now, let’s focus on the task at hand.”

The discussion continued…but the fly on the wall was no longer there to record it.

Afterword

I hope this little vignette illustrates how IBIS and dialogue mapping can aid collaborative decision-making / problem solving by making diverse viewpoints explicit. That said, this is a story, and the problem with stories is that things  go the way the author wants them to.  In real life, conversations can go off on unexpected tangents, making them really hard to map. So, although it is important to gain expertise in using the software, it is far more important to practice mapping live conversations. The latter is an art that requires considerable practice. I recommend reading Paul Culmsee’s series on the practice of dialogue mapping or <advertisement> Chapter 14 of The Heretic’s Guide to Best Practices</advertisement> for more on this point.

That said, there are many other ways in which IBIS can be used, that do not require as much skill. Some of these include: mapping the central points in written arguments (what’s sometimes called issue mapping) and even decisions on personal matters.

To sum up: IBIS is a powerful means to clarify options and lay them out in an easy-to-follow visual format. Often this is all that is required to catalyse a group decision.

From information to knowledge: the what and whence of issue based information systems

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Issue Based Information System (IBIS) is a notation invented by Horst Rittel and Werner Kunz in the early 1970s.  IBIS is best known for its use in dialogue mapping, a collaborative approach to tackling wicked problems (i.e. contentious issues) in organisations. It has a range of other applications as well – capturing knowledge is a good example, and I’ll have much more to say about that later in this post.

Over the last five years or so, I have written a fair bit on IBIS on this blog and in a book that I co-authored with the dialogue mapping expert, Paul Culmsee.   The present post reprises an article I wrote five years ago on the “what” and “whence” of the notation:  its practical aspects – notation, grammar etc -, as well as its origins, advantages and limitations. My motivations for revisiting the piece are to revise and update the original discussion and, more important, to cover some recent developments in IBIS technology that open up interesting possibilities in the area of knowledge management.

To appreciate the power of the IBIS, it is best to begin by understanding the context in which the notation was invented.  I’ll therefore start with a discussion of the origins of the notation followed by an introduction to it. Finally, I’ll cover its development through the last 40 odd years, focusing on the recent developments that I mentioned above.

Wicked origins

A good place to start is where it all started. IBIS was first described in a paper entitled, Issues as elements of Information Systems; written by Horst Rittel (the man who coined the term wicked problem) and Werner Kunz in July 1970. They state the intent behind IBIS in the very first line of the abstract of their paper:

 Issue-Based Information Systems (IBIS) are meant to support coordination and planning of political decision processes. IBIS guides the identification, structuring, and settling of issues raised by problem-solving groups, and provides information pertinent to the discourse.

Rittel’s preoccupation was the area of public policy and planning – which is also the context in which he defined the term wicked problem originally. Given the above background it is no surprise that Rittel and Kunz foresaw IBIS to be the:

…type of information system meant to support the work of cooperatives like governmental or administrative agencies or committees, planning groups, etc., that are confronted with a problem complex in order to arrive at a plan for decision…

The problems tackled by such cooperatives are paradigm-defining examples of wicked problems. From the start, then, IBIS was intended as a tool to facilitate a collaborative approach to solving…or better, managing a wicked problem by helping develop a shared perspective on it.

A brief introduction to IBIS

The IBIS notation consists of the following three elements:

  1. Issues(or questions): these are issues that are being debated. Typically, issues are framed as questions on the lines of “What should we do about X?” where X is the issue that is of interest to a group. For example, in the case of a group of executives, X might be rapidly changing market condition whereas in the case of a group of IT people, X could be an ageing system that is hard to replace.
  2. Ideas(or positions): these are responses to questions. For example, one of the ideas of offered by the IT group above might be to replace the said system with a newer one. Typically the whole set of ideas that respond to an issue in a discussion represents the spectrum of participant perspectives on the issue.
  3. Arguments: these can be Pros (arguments for) or Cons (arguments against) an issue. The complete set of arguments that respond to an idea represents the multiplicity of viewpoints on it.

Compendium is a freeware tool that can be used to create IBIS maps– it can be downloaded here.

In Compendium, the IBIS elements described above are represented as nodes as shown in Figure 1: issues are represented by blue-green question marks; positions by yellow light bulbs; pros by green + signs and cons by red – signs.  Compendium supports a few other node types, but these are not part of the core IBIS notation. Nodes can be linked only in ways specified by the IBIS grammar as I discuss next.

 

Figure 1: IBIS elements

Figure 1: IBIS elements

The IBIS grammar can be summarized in three simple rules:

  1. Issues can be raised anew or can arise from other issues, positions or arguments. In other words, any IBIS element can be questioned.  In Compendium notation:  a question node can connect to any other IBIS node.
  2. Ideas can only respond to questions– i.e. in Compendium “light bulb” nodes can only link to question nodes. The arrow pointing from the idea to the question depicts the “responds to” relationship.
  3. Arguments  can only be associated with ideas– i.e. in Compendium “+” and “–“  nodes can only link to “light bulb” nodes (with arrows pointing to the latter)

The legal links are summarized in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2: Legal links in IBIS

Figure 2: Legal links in IBIS

Yes, it’s as simple as that.

The rules are best illustrated by example-   follow the links below to see some illustrations of IBIS in action:

  1. See this postfor a simple example of dialogue mapping.
  2. See this postor this one for examples of argument visualisation. (Note: using IBIS to map out the structure of written arguments is called issue mapping.
  3. See this one for an example Paul did with his children. This example also features in our book. that made an appearance in our book.

Now that we know how IBIS works and have seen a few examples of it in action, it’s time to trace the history of the notation from its early days the present.

Operation of early systems

When Rittel and Kunz wrote their paper, there were three IBIS-type systems in operation: two in government agencies (in the US, one presumes) and one in a university environment (quite possibly Berkeley, where Rittel worked). Although it seems quaint and old-fashioned now, it is no surprise that these were manual, paper-based systems; the effort and expense involved in computerizing such systems in the early 70s would have been prohibitive and the pay-off questionable.

The Rittel-Kunz paper introduced earlier also offers a short description of how these early IBIS systems operated:

An initially unstructured problem area or topic denotes the task named by a “trigger phrase” (“Urban Renewal in Baltimore,” “The War,” “Tax Reform”). About this topic and its subtopics a discourse develops. Issues are brought up and disputed because different positions (Rittel’s word for ideas or responses) are assumed. Arguments are constructed in defense of or against the different positions until the issue is settled by convincing the opponents or decided by a formal decision procedure. Frequently questions of fact are directed to experts or fed into a documentation system. Answers obtained can be questioned and turned into issues. Through this counterplay of questioning and arguing, the participants form and exert their judgments incessantly, developing more structured pictures of the problem and its solutions. It is not possible to separate “understanding the problem” as a phase from “information” or “solution” since every formulation of the problem is also a statement about a potential solution.

 Even today, forty years later, this is an excellent description of how IBIS is used to facilitate a common understanding of complex problems.  Moreover, the process of reaching a shared understanding (whether using IBIS or not) is one of the key ways in which knowledge is created within organizations. To foreshadow a point I will elaborate on later, using IBIS to capture the key issues, ideas and arguments, and the connections between them, results in a navigable map of the knowledge that is generated in a discussion.

 Fast forward a couple decades (and more!)

In a paper published in 1988 entitled, gIBIS: A hypertext tool for exploratory policy discussion, Conklin and Begeman describe a prototype of a graphical, hypertext-based  IBIS-type system (called gIBIS) and its use in capturing design rationale (yes, despite the title of the paper, it is more about capturing design rationale than policy discussions). The development of gIBIS represents a key step between the original Rittel-Kunz version of IBIS and its more recent version as implemented in Compendium.  Amongst other things, IBIS was finally off paper and on to disk, opening up a world of new possibilities.

gIBIS aimed to offer users:

  1. The ability to capture design rationale – the options discussed (including the ones rejected) and the discussion around the pros and cons of each.
  2. A platform for promoting computer-mediated collaborativedesign work – ideally in situations where participants were located at sites remote from each other.
  3. The ability to store a large amount of information and to be able to navigate through it in an intuitive way.

The gIBIS prototype proved successful enough to catalyse the development of Questmap, a commercially available software tool that supported IBIS.  In a recent conversation Jeff Conklin mentioned to me that Questmap was one of the earliest Windows-based groupware tools available on the market…and it won a best-of-show award in that category. It is interesting to note that in contrast to Questmap (which no longer exists), Compendium is a single-user, desktop software.

The primary application of Questmap was in the area of sensemaking which is all about helping groups reach a collective understanding of complex situations that might otherwise lead them into tense or adversarial conditions. Indeed, that is precisely how Rittel and Kunz intended IBIS to be used.  The key advantage offered by computerized IBIS systems was that one could map dialogues in real-time, with the map representing the points raised in the conversation along with their logical connections. This proved to be a big step forward in the use of IBIS to help groups achieve a shared understanding of complex issues.

That said, although there were some notable early successes in the real-time use of IBIS in industry environments (see this paper, for example), these were not accompanied by widespread adoption of the technique. It is worth exploring the reasons for this briefly.

 The tacitness of IBIS mastery

The reasons for the lack of traction of IBIS-type techniques for real-time knowledge capture are discussed in a paper by Shum et. al. entitled, Hypermedia Support for Argumentation-Based Rationale: 15 Years on from gIBIS and QOC.  The reasons they give are:

  1. For acceptance, any system must offer immediate value to the person who is using it. Quoting from the paper, “No designer can be expected to altruistically enter quality design rationale solely for the possible benefit of a possibly unknown person at an unknown point in the future for an unknown task. There must be immediate value.” Such immediate value is not obvious to novice users of IBIS-type systems.
  2. There is some effort involved in gaining fluency in the use of IBIS-based software tools. It is only after this that users can gain an appreciation of the value of such tools in overcoming the limitations of mapping design arguments on paper, whiteboards etc.

While the rules of IBIS are simple to grasp, the intellectual effort – or cognitive overhead in using IBIS in real time involves:

  1. Teasing out issues, ideas and arguments from the dialogue.
  2. Classifying points raised into issues, ideas and arguments.
  3. Naming (or describing) the point succinctly.
  4. Relating (or linking) the point to the existing map (or anticipating how it will fit in later)
  5. Developing a sense for conversational patterns.

Expertise in these skills can only be developed through sustained practice, so it is no surprise that beginners find it hard to use IBIS to map dialogues.   Indeed, the use of IBIS for real-time conversation mapping is a tacit skill, much like riding a bike or swimming – it can only be mastered by doing.

Making sense through IBIS 

Despite the difficulties of mastering IBIS, it is easy to see that it offers considerable advantages over conventional methods of documenting discussions. Indeed, Rittel and Kunz were well aware of this. Their paper contains a nice summary of the advantages, which I paraphrase below:

  1. IBIS can bridge the gap between discussions and records of discussions (minutes, audio/video transcriptions etc.). IBIS sits between the two, acting as a short-term memory. The paper thus foreshadows the use of issue-based systems as an aid to organizational or project memory.
  2. Many elements (issues, ideas or arguments) that come up in a discussion have contextual meanings that are different from any pre-existing definitions. That is, the interpretation of points made or questions raised depends on the circumstances surrounding the discussion. What is more important is that contextual meaning is more important than formal meaning. IBIS captures the former in a very clear way – for example a response to a question “What do we mean by X?” elicits the meaning of X in the context of the discussion, which is then subsequently captured as an idea (position)”. I’ll have much more to say about this towards the end of this article.
  3. The reasoning used in discussions is made transparent, as is the supporting (or opposing) evidence.
  4. The state of the argument (discussion) at any time can be inferred at a glance (unlike the case in written records). See this post for more on the advantages of visual documentation over prose.
  5. Often times it happens that the commonality of issues with other, similar issues might be more important than its precise meaning. To quote from the paper, “…the description of the subject matter in terms of librarians or documentalists (sic) may be less significant than the similarity of an issue with issues dealt with previously and the information used in their treatment…”  This is less of an issue now because of search of technologies. However, search technologies are still largely based on keywords rather than context. A properly structured, context-searchable IBIS-based archive would be more useful than a conventional document-based system. As I’ll discuss in the next section, the technology for this is now available.

To sum up, then: although IBIS offers a means to map out arguments what is lacking is the ability to make these maps available and searchable across an organization.

IBIS in the enterprise

It is interesting to note that Compendium, unlike its predecessor, Questmap, is a single-user, desktop tool – it does not, by itself, enable the sharing of maps across the enterprise. To be sure, it is possible work around this limitation but the workarounds are somewhat clunky.  A recent advance in IBIS technology addresses this issue rather elegantly: Seven Sigma, an Australian consultancy founded by Paul Culmsee, Chris Tomich and Peter Chow, has developed Glyma (pronounced “glimmer”): a product that makes IBIS available on collaboration platforms like Microsoft SharePoint. This is a game-changer because it enables sharing and searching of IBIS maps across the enterprise. Moreover, as we shall see below, the implications of this go beyond sharing and search.

Full Disclosure: As regular readers of this blog know, Paul is a good friend and we have jointly written a book and a few papers. However, at the time of writing, I have no commercial association with Seven Sigma.  My comments below are based on playing with beta version of the product that Paul was kind enough to give me to access to as well as some discussions that I have had with him.

Figure 3: IBIS in Glyma

Figure 3: IBIS in Glyma (Click to see larger picture)

The look and feel of Glyma is much the same as Compendium (see Fig 3 above) – and the keystrokes and shortcuts are quite similar. I have trialled Glyma for a few weeks and feel that the overall experience is actually a bit better than in Compendium. For example one can navigate through a series of maps and sub-maps using a breadcrumb trail. Another example: documents and videos are embedded within the map – so one does not need to leave the map in order to view tagged media (unless of course one wants to see it at a higher resolution).

I won’t go into any detail about product features etc. since that kind of information is best accessed at source – i.e. the product website and documentation. Instead, I will now focus on how Glyma addresses a longstanding gap in knowledge management systems.

Revisiting the problem of context

In most organisations, knowledge artefacts (such as documents and audio-visual media) are stored in hierarchical or relational structures (for example, a folder within a directory structure or a relational database). To be sure, stored artefacts are often tagged with metadata indicating when, where and by whom they were created, but experience tells me that such metadata is not as useful as it should be.  The problem is that the context in which an artefact was created is typically not captured. Anyone who has read a document and wondered, “What on earth were the authors thinking when they wrote this?” has encountered the problem of missing context.

Context, though hard to capture, is critically important in understanding the content of a knowledge artefact. Any artefact, when accessed without an appreciation of the context in which it was created is liable to be misinterpreted or only partially understood.

 Capturing context in the enterprise

Glyma addresses the issue of context rather elegantly at the level of the enterprise.  I’ll illustrate this point an inspiring case study on the innovative use of SharePoint in education that Paul has written about some time ago.

The case study

Here is the backstory in Paul’s words:

Earlier this year, I met Louis Zulli Jnr – a teacher out of Florida who is part of a program called the Centre of Advanced Technologies. We were co-keynoting at a conference and he came on after I had droned on about common SharePoint governance mistakes…The majority of Lou’s presentation showcased a whole bunch of SharePoint powered solutions that his students had written. The solutions were very impressive…We were treated to examples like:

  • IOS, Android and Windows Phone apps that leveraged SharePoint to display teacher’s assignments, school events and class times;
  • Silverlight based application providing a virtual tour of the campus;
  • Integration of SharePoint with Moodle (an open source learning platform)
  • An Academic Planner web application allowing students to plan their classes, submit a schedule, have them reviewed, track of the credits of the classes selected and whether a student’s selections meet graduation requirements;

All of this and more was developed by 16 to 18 year olds and all at a level of quality that I know most SharePoint consultancies would be jealous of…

Although the examples highlighted by Louis were very impressive, what Paul found more interesting were the anecdotes that Lou related about the dedication and persistence that students displayed in their work. Quoting again from Paul,

So the demos themselves were impressive enough, but that is actually not what impressed me the most. In fact, what had me hooked was not on the slide deck. It was the anecdotes that Lou told about the dedication of his students to the task and how they went about getting things done. He spoke of students working during their various school breaks to get projects completed and how they leveraged each other’s various skills and other strengths. Lou’s final slide summed his talk up brilliantly:

  • Students want to make a difference! Give them the right project and they do incredible things.
  • Make the project meaningful. Let it serve a purpose for the campus community.
  • Learn to listen. If your students have a better way, do it. If they have an idea, let them explore it.
  • Invest in success early. Make sure you have the infrastructure to guarantee uptime and have a development farm.
  • Every situation is different but there is no harm in failure. “I have not failed. I’ve found 10,000 ways that won’t work” – Thomas A. Edison

In brief:  these points highlight the fact that Lou’s primary role as director of the center is to create the conditions that make it possible for students to do great work.  The commercial-level quality of work turned out by students suggests that Lou’s knowledge on how to build high-performing teams is definitely worth capturing.

The question is: what’s the best way to do this (short of getting him to visit you and talk about his experiences)?

Seeing the forest for the trees

Paul recently interviewed Lou with the intent of documenting Lou’s experiences. The conversation was recorded on video and then “Glymafied” it – i.e the video was mapped using IBIS (see Figure 4 below).

Figure 4: Knowledge capture via Glyma

Figure 4: Knowledge capture via Glyma (Click to see larger picture)

There are a few points worth noting here:

  1. The content of the entire conversation is mapped out so one can “see” the conversation at a glance.
  2. The context in which a particular point (i.e. the content of a node) is made is clarified by the connections between a node and its neighbours. Moving left from a node gives a higher level picture, moving right drills down into details.

Of course, the reader will have noted that these are core IBIS capabilities that are available in Compendium (or any other IBIS tool).  Glyma offers much more. Consider the following:

  1. Relevant documents or audio visual media can be tagged to specific nodes to provide supplementary material. In this case the video recording was tagged to specific nodes that related to points made in the video. Clicking on the play icon attached to such a node plays the segment in which the content of the node is being discussed. This is a really nice feature as it saves the user from having to watch the whole video (or play an extended game of ffwd-rew to get to the point of interest). Moreover, this provides additional context that cannot (or is not) captured by in the map. For example, one can attach papers, links to web pages, Slideshare presentations etc. to fill in background and context.
  2. Glyma is integrated with an enterprise content management system by design. One can therefore link map and video content to the powerful built-in search and content aggregation features of these systems. For example, users would be able enter a search from their intranet home page and retrieve not only traditional content such as documents, but also stories, reflections and anecdotes from experts such as Lou.
  3. Another critical aspect to intranet integration is the ability to provide maps as contextual navigation. Amazon’s ability to sell books that people never intended to buy is an example of the power of such navigation. The ability to execute the kinds of queries outlined in the previous point, along with contextual information such as user profile details, previous activity on the intranet and the area of an intranet the user is browsing, makes it possible to present recommendations of nodes or maps that may be of potential interest to users. Such targeted recommendations might encourage users to explore video (and other rich media) content.

Technical Aside: An interesting under-the-hood feature of Glyma is that it uses an implementation of a hypergraph database to store maps. (Note: this is a database that can store representations of graphs (maps) in which an edge can connect to more than 2 vertices). These databases enable the storing of very general graph structures. What this means is that Glyma can be extended to store any kind of map (Mind Maps, Concept Maps, Argument Maps or whatever)…and nodes can be shared across maps. This feature has not been developed as yet, but I mention it because it offers some exciting possibilities in the future.

To summarise: since Glyma stores all its data in an enterprise-class database, maps can be made available across an organization.  It offers the ability to tag nodes with pretty much any kind of media (documents, audio/video clips etc.), and one can tag specific parts of the media that are relevant to the content of the node (a snippet of a video, for example). Moreover, the sophisticated search capabilities of the platform enable context aware search.  Specifically, we can search for nodes by keywords or tags, and once a node of interest is located, we can also view the map(s) in which it appears. The map(s) inform us of the context(s) relating to the node. The ability to display the “contextual environment” of a piece of information is what makes Glyma really interesting.

In metaphorical terms, Glyma enables us to see the forest for the trees.

…and so, to conclude

My aim in this post has been to introduce readers to the IBIS notation and trace its history from its origins in issue mapping to recent developments in knowledge management.  The history of a technique is valuable because it gives insight into the rationale behind its creation, which leads to a better understanding of the different ways in which it can be used. Indeed, it would not be an exaggeration to say that the knowledge management applications discussed above are but an extension of Rittel’s original reasons for inventing IBIS.

I would like to close this piece with a couple of observations from my experience with IBIS:

Firstly, the real surprise for me has been that the technique can capture most written arguments and conversations, despite having only three distinct elements and a very simple grammar. Yes, it does require some thought to do this, particularly when mapping discussions in real time. However, this cognitive overhead is good because it forces the mapper to think about what’s being said instead of just writing it down blind. Thoughtful transcription is the aim of the game. When done right, this results in a map that truly reflects an understanding of a complex issue.

Secondly, although most current discussions of IBIS focus on its applications in dialogue mapping, it has a more important role to play in mapping organizational knowledge. Maps offer a powerful means to navigate the complex network of knowledge within an organisation. The (aspirational) end-goal of such an effort would be a “global” knowledge map that highlights interconnections between different kinds of knowledge that exists within an organization. To be sure, such a map will make little sense to the human eye, but powerful search capabilities could make it navigable. To the extent that this is a feasible direction, I foresee IBIS becoming an important skill in the repertoire of knowledge management professionals.

Improving decision-making in projects (and life)

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Note: This post is based on a presentation that I gave at BA World Sydney on 26th June. It draws from a number of posts that I have written over the last few years.

Introduction – the myth of rational decision making

A central myth about decision making in organisations is that it is a rational process.   The qualifier rational refers to decision-making methods that are based on the following broad steps:

  1. Identify available options.
  2. Develop criteria for rating options.
  3. Rate options according to criteria developed.
  4. Select the top-ranked option.

The truth is that decision making in organisations generally does not follow such a process. As I have pointed out in this post (which is based on this article by Tim van Gelder) decisions are often based on a mix of informal reasoning, personal beliefs and even leaps of faith. . Quoting from that post, formal (or rational) processes often cannot be applied for one or  more of the following reasons:

  1. Real-world options often cannot be quantified or rated in a meaningful way. Many of life’s dilemmas fall into this category. For example, a decision to accept or decline a job offer is rarely made on the basis of material gain alone.
  2. Even where ratings are possible, they can be highly subjective. For example, when considering a job offer, one candidate may give more importance to financial matters whereas another might consider lifestyle-related matters (flexi-hours, commuting distance etc.) to be paramount. Another complication here is that there may not be enough information to settle the matter conclusively. As an example, investment decisions are often made on the basis of quantitative information that is based on questionable assumptions.
  3. Finally, the problem may be wicked – i.e. complex, multi-faceted and difficult to analyse using formal decision making methods. Classic examples of wicked problems are climate change (so much so, that some say it is not even a problem) and city / town planning. Such problems cannot be forced into formal decision analysis frameworks in any meaningful way.

The main theme running through all of these is uncertainty. Most of the decisions we are called upon to make in our professional lives are fraught with uncertainty – it is what makes it hard to rate options, adds to the subjectivity of ratings (where they are possible) and magnifies the wickedness of the issue.

Decision making in projects and the need for systematic deliberation

The most important decisions in a project are generally made at the start, at what is sometimes called the “front-end of projects”. Unfortunately this is where information availability is at its lowest and, consequently, uncertainty at its highest.  In such situations, decision makers feel that they are left with little choice but to base their decisions on instinct or intuition.

Now, even when one bases a decision on intuition, there is some deliberation involved – one thinks things through and weighs up options in some qualitative way. Unfortunately, in most situations, this is done in an unsystematic manner. Moreover, decision makers fail to record the informal reasoning behind their decisions. As a result the rationale behind decisions made remain opaque to those who want to understand why particular choices were made.

A brief introduction to IBIS

Clearly, what one needs is a means to make the informal reasoning behind a decision explicit. Now there are a number of argument visualisation techniques available for this purpose, but I will focus on one that I have worked with for a while: Issue-Based Information System (IBIS). I will introduce the notation briefly below. Those who want a detailed introduction will find one in my article entitled, The what and whence of issue-based information systems.

IBIS consists of three main elements:

  • Issues (or questions): these are issues that need to be addressed.
  • Positions (or ideas): these are responses to questions. Typically the set of ideas that respond to an issue represents the spectrum of perspectives on the issue.
  • Arguments: these can be Pros (arguments supporting) or Cons (arguments against) an issue. The complete set of arguments that respond to an idea represents the multiplicity of viewpoints on it.

The best IBIS mapping tool is Compendium – it can be downloaded here.  In Compendium, the IBIS elements described above are represented as nodes as shown in Figure 1: issues are represented by green question nodes; positions by yellow light bulbs; pros by green + signs and cons by red – signs.  Compendium supports a few other node types, but these are not part of the core IBIS notation. Nodes can be linked only in ways specified by the IBIS grammar as I discuss next.

IBIS Elements

The IBIS grammar can be summarized in a few simple rules:

  • Issues can be raised anew or can arise from other issues, positions or arguments. In other words, any IBIS element can be questioned.  In Compendium notation:  a question node can connect to any other IBIS node.
  • Ideas can only respond to questions – i.e.  in Compendium “light bulb” nodes  can only link to question nodes. The arrow pointing from the idea to the question depicts the “responds to” relationship.
  • Arguments  can only be associated with ideas –  i.e in Compendium + and –  nodes can only link to “light bulb” nodes (with arrows pointing to the latter)

The legal links are summarized in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2: Legal Links in IBIS

The rules are best illustrated by example-   follow the links below to see some illustrations of IBIS in action:

  1. See or this post or this one for examples of IBIS in mapping dialogue.
  2. See this post or this one for examples of argument visualisation (issue mapping) using IBIS.

The case studies

In my talk, I illustrated the use of IBIS by going through a couple of examples in detail, both of which I have described in detail in other articles. Rather than reproduce them here, I will provide links to the original sources below.

The first example was drawn from a dialogue mapping exercise I did for a data warehousing project. A detailed discussion of the context and process of mapping (along with figures of the map as it developed) are available in a paper entitled, Mapping project dialogues using IBIS – a case study and some reflections (PDF).

The second example, in which I described a light-hearted example of the use of IBIS in a non-work setting,  is discussed in my post, What should I do now – a bedtime story about dialogue mapping.

Benefits of IBIS

The case studies serve to highlight how IBIS encourages collective deliberation of issues. Since the issues we struggle with in projects often have elements of wickedness, eliciting opinions from a group through dialogue improves our chances arriving at a “solution” that is acceptable to the group as a whole.

Additional benefits of using  IBIS in a group setting include:

  • It adds clarity to a discussion
  • Serves as a simple and intuitive discussion summary (compare to meeting minutes!)
  • Is a common point of reference to move a discussion forward.
  • It captures the logic of a decision (decision rationale)

Further still, IBIS disarms disruptive discussion tactics such as “death by repetition” – when a person brings up the same issue over and over again in a million and one different ways. In such situations the mapper simply points to the already captured issue and asks the person if they want to add anything to it. The disruptive behaviour becomes evident to all participants (including the offender).

The beauty of IBIS lies in its simplicity. It is easy to learn – four nodes with a very simple grammar. Moreover, participants don’t need to learn the notation. I have found that most people can understand what’s going on within a few minutes with just a few simple pointers from the mapper.

Another nice feature of IBIS is that it is methodology-neutral. Whatever your methodological persuasion – be it Agile or something  that’s  BOKsed – you can use it to address decision problems in your project meetings.

Getting started

The best way to learn IBIS is to map out the logic of articles in newspapers, magazines or even professional journals. Once you are familiar with the syntax and grammar, you can graduate to one-on-one conversations, and from there to small meetings. When using it in a meeting for the first time, tell the participants that you are simply taking notes. If things start to work well – i.e. if you are mapping the conversation successfully – the group will start interacting with the map, using it as a basis for their reasoning and as a means to move the dialogue forward. Once you get to this point, you are where you want to be – you are mapping the logic of the conversation.

Of course, there is much more to it than I’ve mentioned above. Check out the references at the end of this piece for more information on mapping dialogues using IBIS.

Wrap up

As this post is essentially covers a talk I gave at a conference, I would like to wrap up with a couple of observations and comments from the audience.

I began my talk with the line, “A central myth about decision making in organisations is that it is a rational process.”  I thought many in the audience would disagree. To my surprise, however, there was almost unanimous agreement! The points I made about uncertainty and problem wickedness also seemed to resonate. There were some great examples from the audience on wicked problems in IT – a particularly memorable one about an infrastructure project (which one would normally not think of as particularly wicked) displaying elements of wickedness soon after it was started.

It seems that although mainstream management ignores the sense-making aspect of the profession, many practitioners tacitly understand that making sense out of ambiguous situations is an important part of their work.  Moreover, they know that this is best done by harnessing the collective intelligence of a group rather than by enforcing a process or a solution

References:

  1. Jeff Conklin, Dialogue Mapping: Building Shared Understanding of Wicked Problems, John Wiley, New York (2005). See my review of Conklin’s book here
  2. Paul Culmsee & Kailash Awati, The Heretic’s Guide to Best Practices: The Reality of Managing Complex Problems in Organisations, iUniverse: Bloomington, Indiana (2011).

Projects as networks of commitments – a paper preview

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Mainstream project management standards and texts tend to focus on the tools, techniques and processes needed to manage projects. They largely ignore the fact that projects are conceived, planned, carried out and monitored by people. In a paper entitled, Towards a holding environment: building shared understanding and commitment in projects,  Paul Culmsee and I present a viewpoint that puts people and their project-relevant concerns at the center of projects. This post is a summary of the main ideas of the paper which is published in the May 2012 issue of the International Journal of Managing Projects in Business.

Conventional approaches to project management tend to give short shrift to the social aspects of projects –   issues such as stakeholders with differing viewpoints regarding the rationale and goals of a project. Our contention is that problems arising from stakeholder diversity are best resolved by helping stakeholders achieve a shared (or common) understanding of project goals and, based on that, a shared commitment to working towards them. Indeed, we believe this is  a crucial but often overlooked facet of  managing the early stages of a project.

One of the prerequisites to achieving shared understanding is open dialogue –dialogue that is free from politics, strategic behaviours and power games that are common in organisations. Details of what constitutes such dialogue and the conditions necessary for it are described by the philosopher Juergen Habermas in his theory of communicative rationality. Our paper draws extensively on Habermas’ work and also presents a succinct summary of the main ideas of communicative rationality.

The conditions required for open dialogue in the sense described by Habermas are:

  1. Inclusion: all affected stakeholders should be included in the dialogue.
  2. Autonomy: all participants should be able to present their viewpoints and debate those of others independently.
  3. Empathy: participants must be willing to listen to viewpoints that may be different from theirs and make the effort to understand them.
  4. Power neutrality: differences in status or authority levels should not affect the discussion:
  5. Transparency: participants must be completely honest when presenting their views or discussing those of others.

We call an environment which fosters open dialogue a holding environment.  Although a holding environment as characterised above may seem impossible to create, it turns out that an alliance-based approach to projects can approximate the conditions necessary for one. In brief, alliancing is an approach to projects in which different stakeholders agree, by contract, to work collaboratively to achieve mutually agreed goals while sharing risks and rewards in an equitable manner. There are a fair number of large projects that have been successfully delivered using such an approach (see the case studies on the Center for Collaborative Contracting web site).

Once such an approach is endorsed by all project stakeholders, most of the impediments to open dialogue are removed. In the paper we use a case study to illustrate how stakeholder differences can be resolved in such an environment. In particular we show how project-relevant issues and the diverse viewpoints on them can be captured and reconciled using the IBIS (Issue-based information system) notation (see this post for a quick introduction to IBIS).  It should be noted that our concept of a  holding environment does not require the use of IBIS;  any means to capture issues, ideas and arguments raised in a debate will work just as well.  The aim is to reach a shared understanding,  and once stakeholders do this –  using IBIS or any other means – they are able to make mutual commitments to action.

It should be emphasised that an alliance-based approach to projects  takes a fair bit of effort and commitment from all parties to implement successfully. In general such effort is justifiable only for very large projects,  typically public infrastructure projects (which is why many government agencies are interested in it). It is interesting to speculate how such an approach can be “scaled down” to smaller projects like the ones undertaken by corporate IT departments. Unfortunately such speculations are not permitted in research papers. However,  we discuss some of these at length in our book,  The Heretic’s Guide to Best Practices.

In their  ground-breaking book on design Terry Winograd and Fernando Flores describe organisations as networks of commitments.  We believe this metaphor is appropriate for  projects too. As we state in the paper,  “Organisations and projects are made up of people, and it is the commitments that people make (to carry out certain actions) that make organisations or projects tick. This metaphor – that projects are networks of commitments – lies at the heart of  the perspective we propose in this paper. The focus of project management ought to be on how commitments are made and maintained through the life of a project.

Mapping project dialogues using IBIS – a paper preview

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Work commitments have conspired to keep this post short. Well, short compared to my usual long-winded essays at any rate. Among other things, I’m currently helping  get a biggish project started while also trying to finish my current writing commitments in whatever little free time I have.  Fortunately, I have a ready-made topic to write about this week:  my recently published paper on the use of dialogue mapping in project management.  Instead of summarizing the paper, as I usually do in my paper reviews, I’ll simply present some background to the paper and describe, in brief, my rationale for writing it.

As regular readers of this blog will know, I am a fan of dialogue mapping,  a conversation mapping technique pioneered by Jeff Conklin. Those unfamiliar with the technique will find a super-quick introduction here.  Dialogue mapping uses a visual notation called issue based information system (IBIS) which I have described in detail in this post.  IBIS was invented by Horst Rittel as a means to capture and clarify facets of   wicked problems – problems that are hard to define, let alone solve.  However, as I discuss in the paper, the technique also has utility in the much more mundane day-to-day business of managing projects.

In essence, IBIS provides a means to capture questions,  responses to questions and arguments for and against those responses. This, coupled with the fact that it is easy to use, makes it eminently suited to capturing conversations in which issues are debated and resolved. Dialogue mapping is therefore a great way to surface options, debate them and reach a “best for group” decision in real-time. The technique thus has many applications in organizational settings. I have used it regularly in project meetings, particularly those in which critical decisions regarding design or approach are being discussed.

Early last year I used the technique to kick-start a data warehousing initiative within the organisation I work for. In the paper I use this experience as a case-study to illustrate some key aspects and features of dialogue mapping that make it useful in project discussions.  For completeness I also discuss why other visual notations for decision and design rationale don’t work as well as IBIS for capturing conversations in real-time. However, the main rationale for the paper is to provide a short,  self-contained introduction to the technique via a realistic case-study.

Most project managers would have had to confront questions such as “what approach should we take to solve this problem?” in situations where there is not enough information to make a sound decision. In such situations, the only recourse one has is to dialogue – to talk it over with the team, and thereby reach a shared understanding of the options available. More often than not, a  consensus decision emerges from such dialogue.  Such a decision would be based on the collective knowledge of the team, not just that of an individual.  Dialogue mapping provides a means to get to such a collective decision.

Capturing decision rationale on projects

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Introduction

Most knowledge  management efforts on projects focus on capturing what or how rather than why. That is, they focus on documenting approaches and procedures rather than the reasons behind them. This often leads to a situation where folks working on subsequent projects (or even the same project!) are left wondering why a particular technique or approach was favoured over others.  How often have you as a project manager asked yourself questions like the following when browsing through a project archive?

  1. Why did project decision-makers choose to co-develop the system rather than build it in-house or outsource it?
  2. Why did the developer responsible for a module use this approach rather than that one?

More often than not, project archives are silent on such matters because the reasoning behind decisions isn’t documented. In this post I discuss how the Issue Based Information System (IBIS) notation can be used to fill this “rationale gap” by capturing the reasoning behind project decisions.

Note: Those unfamiliar with IBIS may want to have a browse of my post on entitled what and whence of issue-based information systems for a quick introduction to the notation and its uses. I also recommend downloading and installing Compendium, a free software tool that can be used to create IBIS maps.

Example 1: Build or outsource?

In a post entitled The Approach: A dialogue mapping story, I presented a fictitious account of  how a project team member constructed an IBIS map of a project discussion (Note: dialogue mapping refers to the art of mapping conversations as they occur). The issue under discussion was the approach that should be used to build a system.

The options discussed by the team were:

  1. Build the system in-house.
  2. Outsource system development.
  3. Co-develop using a mix of external and internal staff.

Additionally, the selected approach had to satisfy the following criteria:

  1. Must be within a specified budget.
  2. Must implement all features that have been marked as top priority.
  3. Must be completed within a specified time

The post details how the discussion was mapped in real-time.  Here I’ll simply show the final map of  the discussion (see  Figure 1).

Figure 1: IBIS map for Example 1

Although the option chosen by the group is not marked (they chose to co-develop), the figure describes the pros and cons of each approach (and elaborations of these) in a clear and easy-to-understand manner.  In other words, it maps the rationale behind the decision – a  person looking at the map can get a sense for why the team chose to co-develop rather than use any of the other approaches.

Example 2: Real-time updates of a data mart

In another post on dialogue mapping I described how IBIS was used to map a technical discussion about the best way to update selected tables in a data mart during business hours.  For readers who are unfamiliar with the term: data marts are databases that are (generally) used purely for reporting and analysis.  They are typically updated via batch processes that are run outside of normal business hours.   The requirement to do real-time updates arose from a business need to see up-to-the-minute reports at specified times during the financial year.

Again, I’ll refer the reader to the post for details, and simply present the final map (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: IBIS Map for Example 2.

Since there are a few technical terms involved, here’s a brief rundown of the options, lifted straight from my earlier post (Note: feel free skip this detail  – it is incidental to the main point of this post) :

  1. Use our messaging infrastructure to carry out the update.
  2. Write database triggers on transaction tables. These triggers would update the data mart tables directly or indirectly.
  3. Write custom T-SQL procedures (or an SSIS package) to carry out the update (the database is SQL Server 2005).
  4. Run the relevant (already existing) Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) procedures at more frequent intervals – possibly several times during the day.

In this map the option chosen by the group decision is marked out – it was decided that no additional development was needed; the “real-time” requirement could be satisfied simply by running existing update procedures during business hours (option 4 listed above).

Once again, the reasoning behind the decision is easy to see:  the option chosen offered the simplest and quickest way to satisfy the business requirement, even though the update was not really done in real-time.

Summarising

The above examples illustrate how IBIS captures the reasoning behind project decisions.  It does so  by:

  1. Making explicit all the options considered.
  2. Describing the pros and cons of each option (and elaborations thereof).
  3. Providing a means to explicitly tag an option as a decision.
  4. Optionally, providing a means to link out to external source (documents, spreadsheets, urls). In the second example I could have added clickable references to documents elaborating on technical detail using the external link capability of Compendium.

Issue maps (as IBIS maps are sometimes called)  lay out the reasoning behind decisions in a visual, easy-to-understand way.  The visual aspect is important –  see this post for more on why visual representations of reasoning are more effective than prose.

I’ve used IBIS to map discussions ranging from project approaches to mathematical model building, and have found them to be invaluable when asked questions about why things were done in a certain way. Just last week, I was able to answer a question about variables used in a  market segmentation model that I built almost two years ago – simply by referring back to the issue map of the discussion and the notes I had made in it.

In summary: IBIS provides a means to capture decision rationale in a visual and easy-to-understand way,  something that is hard to do using other means.

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