Eight to Late

Sensemaking and Analytics for Organizations

The legacy of legacy software

with 4 comments


On a recent ramble through Google Scholar, I stumbled on a fascinating paper by Michael Mahoney entitled, What Makes the History of Software Hard.  History can offer interesting perspectives on the practice of a profession. So it is with this paper. In this post I review the paper, with an emphasis on the insights it provides into the practice of software development.

Mahoney’s thesis is that,

The history of software is the history of how various communities of practitioners have put their portion of the world into the computer. That has meant translating their experience and understanding of the world into computational models, which in turn has meant creating new ways of thinking about the world computationally and devising new tools for expressing that thinking in the form of working programs….

In other words, software– particularly application software – embodies real world practices.  As a consequence,

 …the models and tools that constitute software reflect the histories of the communities that created them and cannot be understood without knowledge of those histories, which extend beyond computers and computing to encompass the full range of human activities

This, according Mahoney, is what makes the history of software hard.

 The standard history of computing

The standard (textbook) history of computing is hardware-focused: a history of computers rather than computing. The textbook version follows a familiar tune starting with the abacus and working its way up via analog computers, ENIAC, mainframes, micros, PCs and so forth. Further, the standard narrative suggests that each of these were invented in order to satisfy a pre-existing demand, which makes their appearance almost inevitable. In Mahoney’s words,

 …Just as it places all earlier calculating devices on one or more lines leading toward the electronic digital computer, as if they were somehow all headed in its direction, so too it pulls together the various contexts in which the devices were built, as if they constituted a growing demand for the invention of the computer and as if its appearance was a response to that demand.

Mahoney says that this is misleading for because,

 …If people have been waiting for the computer to appears as the desired solution to their problems, it is not surprising that they then make use of it when it appears, or indeed that they know how to use it

Further, it

sets up a narrative of revolutionary impact, in which the computer is brought to bear on one area after another, in each case with radically transformative effect….”

The second point – revolutionary impact – is interesting because we still suffer its fallout: just about every issue of any trade journal has an article hyping the Next Big Computing Revolution. It seems that their writers are simply taking their cues from history.  Mahoney puts it very well,

One can hardly pick up a journal in computing today without encountering some sort of revolution in the making, usually proclaimed by someone with something to sell. Critical readers recognise most of it as hype based on future promise than present performance…

The problem with revolutions, as Mahoney notes, is that they attempt to erase (or rewrite) history, ignoring the real continuities and connections between present and the past,

  Nothing is in fact unprecedented, if only because we use precedents tot recognise, accommodate and shape the new…

CIOs and other decision makers, take note!

 But what about software?

The standard history of computing doesn’t say much about software,

 To the extent that the standard narrative covers software, the story follows the generations of machines, with an emphasis on systems software, beginning with programming languages and touching—in most cases, just touching—on operating systems, at least up to the appearance of time-sharing. With a nod toward Unix in the 1970s, the story moves quickly to personal computing software and the story of Microsoft, seldom probing deep enough to reveal the roots of that software in the earlier period.

As far as applications software is concerned –whether in construction, airline ticketing or retail – the only accounts that exist are those of pioneering systems such as the Sabre reservation system. Typically these efforts focus on the system being built, excluding any context and connection to the past. There are some good “pioneer style” histories:  an example is Scott Rosenberg’s book Dreaming in Code – an account of the Chandler software project. But these are exceptions rather than the rule.

In the revolutionary model, people react to computers. In reality, though, it’s the opposite: people figure out ways to use computers in their areas of expertise. They design and implement programs to make computers do useful things. In doing so, they make choices:

 Hence, the history of computing, especially of software, should strive to preserve human agency by structuring its narratives around people facing choices and making decisions instead of around impersonal forces pushing people in a predetermined direction. Both the choices and the decisions are constrained by the limits and possibilities of the state of the art at the time, and the state of the art embodies its history to that point.

The early machines of the 1940s and 50s were almost solely dedicated to numerical computations in the mathematical and physical sciences. Thereafter, as computing became more “mainstream” other communities of practitioners started to look at how they might use computers:

These different groups saw different possibilities in the computer, and they had different experiences as they sought to realize those possibilities, often translating those experiences into demands on the computing community, which itself was only taking shape at the time.

But these different communities have their own histories and ways of doing things – i.e. their own, unique worlds. To create software that models these worlds, the worlds have to be translated into terms the computer can “understand” and work with. This translation is the process of software design. The software models thus created embody practices that have evolved over time. Hence, the models also reflect the histories of the communities that create them.

 Models are imperfect

There is a gap between models and reality, though. As Mahoney states,

 …Programming is where enthusiasm meets reality. The enduring experience of the communities of computing has been the huge gap between what we can imagine computers doing and what we can actually make them do.

This lead to the notion of a “software crisis: and calls to reform the process of software development, which in turn gave rise to the discipline of software engineering. Many improvements resulted: better tools, more effective project management, high-level languages etc. But all these, as Brooks pointed out in his classic paper, addressed issues of implementation (writing code) not those of design (translating reality into computable representations).  As Mahoney state,

 …putting a portion of the world into the computer means designing an operative representation of that portion of the world that captures what we take to be its essential features. This has proved, as I say, no easy task; on the contrary it has proved difficult, frustrating and in some cases disastrous.

The problem facing the software historian is that he or she has to uncover the problem context and reality as perceived by the software designer, and thus reach an understanding of the design choices made. This is hard to do because it is implicit in the software artefact that the historian studies.  Documentation is rarely any help here because,

 …what programs do and what the documentation says they do are not always the same thing.  Here, in a very real sense, the historian inherits the problems of software maintenance: the farther the program lies from its creators, the more difficult it is to discern its architecture and the design decisions that inform it.

There are two problems here:

  1.  That software embodies a model of some aspect of reality.
  2. The only explanation of the model is the software itself.

As Mahoney puts it,

Legacy code is not just old code, but rather a continuing enactment, an operative representation, of the domain knowledge embodied in it. That may explain the difficulties software engineers have experienced in upgrading and replacing older systems.

Most software professionals will recognise the truth of this statement.

 The legacy of legacy code

The problem is that new systems promise much, but are expensive and pose too many risks.  As always continuity must be maintained, but this is nigh impossible because no one quite understands the legacy bequeathed by legacy code: what it does, how it does it and why it was designed so. So, customers play it safe and legacy code lives on. Despite all the advances in software engineering, software migrations and upgrades remain fraught with problems.

Mahoney concludes with the following play on the word “legacy”,

 This situation (the gap between the old and the new) should be of common interest to computer people and to historians. Historians will want to know how it developed over several decades and why software systems have not kept pace with advances in hardware. That is, historians are interested in the legacy. Even as computer scientists wrestle with a solution to the problem the legacy poses, they must learn to live with it. It is part of their history, and the better they understand it, the better they will be able to move on from it.

This last point should be of interest to those running software development projects in corporate IT environments (and to a lesser extent those developing commercial software). An often unstated (but implicit) requirement is that the delivered software must maintain continuity between the past and present. This is true even for systems that claim to represent a clean break from the past; one never has the luxury of a completely blank slate, there are always arbitrary constraints placed by legacy systems. As Fred Brooks mentions in his classic article No Silver Bullet,

…In many cases, the software must conform because it is the most recent arrival on the scene. In others, it must conform because it is perceived as the most conformable. But in all cases, much complexity comes from conformation to other interfaces…

So, the legacy of legacy software is to add complexity to projects intended to replace it. Mahoney’s concluding line is therefore just as valid for project managers and software designers as it is for historians and computer scientists: project managers and software designers must learn to live with and understand this complexity before they can move on from it.

Written by K

June 11, 2009 at 10:29 pm

4 Responses

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  1. Excellent article. I wonder how this fits with Kuhn’s revolutions of science



    June 12, 2009 at 12:53 am

  2. Marco,

    Thanks for your comment. Perhaps you are drawing an analogy between new systems replacing older (legacy ones) as more accurate models of a business reality? I think this analogy is limited because software models are superficial – they model arbitrary business rules and, unlike scientific theories, they have no predictive power.

    I’m not sure I’ve interpreted your comment correctly, so please feel free to clarify.





    June 12, 2009 at 10:08 pm

  3. […] few weeks ago, I wrote a piece entitled the legacy of legacy software in which I pointed out that legacy code is a problem for historians and programmers alike. Both […]


  4. […] Enterprise architects are seldom (never?) given a blank canvas on which they can draw as they please. They invariably have to begin with an installed base of systems over which they have no control.  As I wrote in a piece on the legacy of legacy systems: […]


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